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Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate Therapy & Non-Surgical Regenerative Medicine 

Dr. Trevor Turner's BMAC Library  

BMAC (Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate) therapy is a non-invasive outpatient procedure that is performed in the office so patients should be in and out within a few hours. BMAC therapy is known as a stem cell-based therapy because bone marrow houses stem cells, which can form new cells such as bone, cartilage and muscle. The major benefits of this regenerative therapy are:

  • Decreased pain
  • Can significantly delay need for joint replacement 
  • May heal chronic injuries
  • Alternative to surgical intervention
  • Increased healing potential
  • May eliminate the need for long-term medication

Dr. Trevor Turner is a non-surgical regenerative medicine specialist, and he has composed a list of BMAC therapy resources to provide his patients with more educational information. 


  • Deprés-Tremblay G, Chevrier A, Snow M, et al. Rotator cuff repair: A review of surgical techniques, animal models, and new technologies under development. J Shoulder Elb Surg 2016; 25:2078-2085.
  • Mora VM, Ibán RMA, Heredia DJ, et al. Stem cell therapy in the management of shoulder rotator cuff disorders. World J Stem Cells 2015; 7:691-699.
  • Gomes EJL, da Silva RC, Silla LMR, et al. Conventional rotator cuff repair complemented by the aid of mononuclear autologous stem cells. Knee Surgery 2012; 20:373-377.
  • Hernigou P, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Delambre J, et al. Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: A case-controlled study. Int Orthop 2014; 38:1811-1818.
  • Centeno CJ, Al-Sayegh H, Bashir J, et al. A prospective multi-site registry study of a specific protocol of autologous bone marrow concentrate for the treatment of shoulder rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis. J Pain Res 2015; 8:269-276


  • Singh A, Gangwar DS, Singh S, et al. Bone marrow injection: A novel treatment for tennis elbow. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2014; 5:389-391.


  • Meyer DJ, Oliver K, Crane D. Lumbar disc biologic autograft injection of bone marrow concentrate for treatment of low back pain: A retrospective review of 22 consecutive cases. AAPM 2013 Annual Meeting Abstracts, Poster Presentation, April 2013.
  • Manchikanti L, Centeno CJ, Atluri S, Albers SL, Shapiro S, Malanga GA, Abd-Elsayed A, Jerome M, Hirsch JA, Kaye AD, Aydin SM, Beall D, Buford D, Borg-Stein J, Buenaventura RM, Cabaret JA, Calodney AK, Candido KD, Cartier C, Latchaw R, Diwan S, Dodson E, Fausel Z, Fredericson M, Gharibo CG, Gupta M, Kaye AM, Knezevic NN, Kosanovic R, Lucas M, Manchikanti MV, Mason RA, Mautner K, Murala S, Navani A, Pampati V, Pastoriza S, Pasupuleti R, Philip C, Sanapati MR, Sand T, Shah RV, Soin A, Stemper I, Wargo BW, Hernigou P. Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC) Therapy in Musculoskeletal Disorders: Evidence-Based Policy Position Statement of American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP). Pain Physician. 2020 Mar;23(2):E85-E131. PMID: 32214287.
  • Pettine K, Suzuki R, Sand T, et al. Treatment of discogenic back pain with autologous bone marrow concentrate injection with minimum two year follow-up. Int Orthop 2016; 40:135-140.


  • Centeno CJ, Pitts J, Al-Sayegh H, et al. Efficacy and safety of bone marrow concentrate for osteoarthritis of the hip; treatment registry results for 196 patients. J Stem Cell Res Ther 2014; 4:242.
  • Centeno CJ, Kisiday J, Freeman M, et al. Partial regeneration of the human hip via autologous bone marrow nucleated cell transfer: A case study. Pain Physician 2006; 9:253-256.
  • Chahla J, LaPrade RF, Mardones R, et al. Biological therapies for cartilage lesions in the hip: A new horizon. Orthopedics 2016; 39:e715-e723.
  • Campbell KJ, Boykin RE, Wijdicks CA, et al. Treatment of a hip capsular injury in a professional soccer player with platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate therapy. Knee Surgery Sport Traumatol Arthrosc 2013; 21:1684-1688.
  • Hernigou P, Dubory A, Homma Y, Guissou I, Flouzat Lachaniette CH, Chevallier N, Rouard H. Cell therapy versus simultaneous contralateral decompression in symptomatic corticosteroid osteonecrosis: a thirty year follow-up prospective randomized study of one hundred and twenty five adult patients. Int Orthop. 2018 Jul;42(7):1639-1649. doi: 10.1007/s00264-018-3941-8. Epub 2018 May 9. PMID: 29744647.
  • Yamasaki T, Yasunaga Y, Ishikawa M, et al. Bone-marrow-derived mononuclear cells with a porous hydroxyapatite scaffold for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2010; 92:337-341.
  • Liu Y, Liu S, Su X. Core decompression and implantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells with porous hydroxylapatite composite filler for the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2013; 133:125-133.
  • Zhao D, Liu B, Wang B, et al. Autologous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with tantalum rod implantation and vascularized iliac grafting for the treatment of end-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015:240506.


  • Centeno C, Pitts J, Al-Sayegh H, et al. Efficacy of autologous bone marrow concentrate for knee osteoarthritis with and without adipose graft TL - 2014. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:370621.
  • Sampson S, Bemden AB, Aufiero D. Autologous bone marrow concentrate: Review and application of a novel intra-articular orthobiologic for cartilage disease. Phys Sportsmed 2013; 41:7-18.
  • Oliver KS, Bayes M, Crane D, et al. Clinical outcome of bone marrow concentrate in knee osteoarthritis. J Prolotherapy 2015; 7:937-946.
  • Centeno CJ, Al-Sayegh H, Bashir J, et al. A dose response analysis of a specific bone marrow concentrate treatment protocol for knee osteoarthritis. BMC Musculoskeletal Disord 2015; 16:258.
  • Hernigou P, Delambre J, Quiennec S, Poignard A. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell injection in subchondral lesions of knee osteoarthritis: a prospective randomized study versus contralateral arthroplasty at a mean fifteen year follow-up. Int Orthop. 2021 Feb;45(2):365-373. doi: 10.1007/s00264-020-04571-4. Epub 2020 Apr 23. PMID: 32322943.
  • Sampson S, Smith J, Vincent H, et al. Intra-articular bone marrow concentrate injection protocol: Short-term efficacy in osteoarthritis. Regen Med 2016; 11:511-520.
  • Shapiro SA, Kazmerchak SE, Heckman MG, et al. A prospective, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of bone marrow aspirate concentrate for knee osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med 2017; 45:82-90
  • Centeno CJ, Pitts J, Al-Sayegh H, et al. Anterior cruciate ligament tears treated with percutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells: A case series. J Pain Res 2015; 8:437-447.
  • Chahla J, Dean CS, Moatshe G, et al. Concentrated bone marrow aspirate for the treatment of chondral injuries and osteoarthritis of the knee: A systematic review of outcomes. Orthop J Sport Med 2016; 4:2325967115625481.


  • Chahla J, Cinque ME, Shon JM, et al. Bone marrow aspirate concentrate for the treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus: A systematic review of outcomes. J Exp Orthop 2016; 3:33.
  • Giannini S, Buda R, Vannini F, et al. One-step bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in talar osteochondral lesions. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2009; 467:3307-3320.
  • Giannini S, Buda R, Battaglia M, et al. One-step repair in talar osteochondral lesions. Am J Sports Med 2013; 41:511-518.
  • Kennedy JG, Murawski CD. The Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus with autologous osteochondral transplantation and bone marrow aspirate concentrate: Surgical technique. Cartilage 2011; 2:327-336.
  • Hannon CP, Ross KA, Murawski CD, et al. Arthroscopic bone marrow stimulation and concentrated bone marrow aspirate for osteochondral lesions of the talus: A case- control study of functional and magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue outcomes. Arthroscopy 2016; 32:339-347.
  • Stein BE, Stroh DA, Schon LC. Outcomes of acute Achilles tendon rupture repair with bone marrow aspirate concentrate augmentation. Int Orthop 2015; 39:901-905.

If you’d like to learn more about stem cell therapy, reach out to Dr. Turner to discuss your questions and concerns. If you’re ready to find a minimally-invasive, long-term solution to your elbow pain, schedule your first appointment with us today.